Since Iran is a very attractive country for imple- menting oil and gas projects in petroleum indus- try, international oil companies have always paid special attention to this country. In the middle east, IOCs have some projects in di erent sectors during both the highest and lowest oil price, and also at the present time, while the oil price is not stable. Nowadays due to the low prices and economic concepts, the IOCs prefer to work in areas such as the Middle East where project implementation and oil extraction are much cheaper. This issue has made such companies active in all elds and at all levels, including small companies, chemical man- ufacturing companies, equipment manufacturers, engineering services providers or educational insti- tutions, E&P companies and mainly, international oil companies known as the IOCs, which carry out a huge amount of activities from upstream to down- stream of oil and gas industries, present in various projects in this area, and work in speci c elds based on their policies and strategies. According to these issues, the activities of eighteen IOCs that are on the Verge of Signing Contracts in Iran are investigated in this chapter. These companies are compared with each other indirectly based on their revenue, oil and natural gas production, and their projects.